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First Aid Questions


Here are the most frequently asked questions in a first aid course. You will be surprised!

1). What is Emergency First Response?

Emergency First Response is one of the fastest-growing international CPR, AED and First Aid training organisations, with more than 56,000 instructors world-wide. Emergency First Response Participant courses include Primary Care (CPR), Secondary Care (first aid), Care for Children and CPR & AED courses that include recommended skills for Automated External Defibrillator (AED) use and an orientation to emergency oxygen use.

2). Who can take an Emergency First Response Course?

Anyone who is interested in acquiring or updating CPR and first aid skills.

3). What do First Aid courses include?

Each course provides instruction on how to perform specific emergency patient care skills (CPR and first aid). For detailed descriptions of our courses, please go to our Courses page.

4). Why choose EFR?

Our EFR course is recognised globally with each attendee receiving an official EFR card that can be shown to paramedics or medical staff if you need to use your newly acquired Emergency First Response skills. This card is an important component of Good Samaritan protection in most countries.

A unique component of this course is the realistic scenarios that all course participants are faced with. Actors are hired to dramatise everyday emergencies that can take place in school playgrounds, public transport and other common locations, which provides the shock-factor, quick-thinking and teamwork required to perform in a real-life situation. With the use of fake blood and realistic prosthetics, the EFR courses provides an exceptional practical component unlike any other course offered in Hong Kong.

5). What is an AED and why would I want to learn about it?

An Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is an easy-to-use portable machine that automatically analyses a patient’s heart rhythm and detects when a shock is needed to restore a normal heart rhythm. AED units dramatically increase the survival rate of these patients. Because early intervention is so important for these patients, many businesses, government agencies, recreational facilities and public places are making AEDs readily available for properly trained personnel.

6). What is the recommended AED training component?

The recommended AED component gives participants practical experience in AED use. Ask your instructor about including this training in your course.

7). What is the difference between Emergency First Response Primary Care and Secondary Care courses and region-specific Emergency First Response Workplace courses?

The Emergency First Response Primary Care and Secondary Care courses meet the needs of anyone who wants to learn CPR and first aid. There are no special restrictions or requirements on teaching Emergency First Response Primary Care and Secondary Care courses to consumers or in some workplaces. However, the region-specific Emergency First Response workplace courses offer a complete and ongoing solution to meeting workplace compliance standards in CPR, AED and First Aid training. While the Region-specific workplace courses include comprehensive instruction in Primary Care (CPR) and Secondary Care (First Aid), their primary purpose is to meet regulatory body requirements for workplace safety in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia.

8). How long are the Emergency First Response courses?

We structure our full courses over nine hours total face time whilst refresher courses generally take around four hours, and children courses are 6 hours. Since the course is performance-based, other factors, such as the number of participants, whether recommended skills are included, the number of mannequins available and how quickly participants master the skills practice sessions will also determine course length. Visit this website’s Courses page for course-specific time information.

9). What are the required course materials?

Emergency First Response courses are supported by a full contingent of educational materials, including:

  • Emergency First Response Participant manual (with independent study section, skill workbook and reference guide). This is used for the Primary Care and Secondary Care courses.
  • Emergency First Response Primary Care and Secondary Care video.
  • Emergency First Response Care for Children Participant manual (with independent study section, skill workbook and reference guide). This is used for the Primary Care and Secondary Care courses for infants and children up to eight years old.
  • Emergency First Response Care for Children Care video.
  • Emergency First Response CPR & AED Participant manual (with independent study section and skill workbook). This is used for the CPR & AED courses.
  • Emergency First Response CPR & AED video.

10). How often must I refresh my skills?

It is recommended that you refresh your skills every two years. After successfully completing the course, participants receive a course completion card. Emergency Responders can refresh their skills through a short skills practice session or as part of a regular Emergency First Response class.

11). How can I be confident that I am doing the right thing?
At the end of the day, your level of confidence will correspond with your level of training and how you were trained. As first aid is a physical skill, it is very important to practice, which is why we spend the majority of our first aid courses doing hands-on skill practice or realistic emergency scenarios.

12). Can I kill a person with CPR?
When you look at CPR being done, especially when you’re seeing it for the first time, it can be very graphic. Consider that someone is pressing down on your chest more than 6cm – of course that is going to cause some damage! It is reasonable to think that you are going to hurt a person.

What we need to keep in mind though is that this person is not breathing. The best case scenario is that they are not breathing and have a pulse. The worst case scenario is that they are breathing and they do not have a pulse.

So yes, doing compressions on someone can hurt, but anyone on the receiving end of CPR is either already clinically dead (no pulse), or in a situation where they may die very soon. A heart will stop beating after 4-7 minutes without oxygen. Performing effective CPR will pump the heart, which will keep the patient’s blood oxygenated.

13). Will I break ribs when I do CPR?

Rib fractures can occur when doing CPR chest compressions. It does not happen all the time, or in all situations, and is not something the first aider is trying to do. As long as the person doing CPR is compressing at least 2 inches on an adult, the CPR is effective. Fractured bones are injuries that can heal within a few weeks. If you hear cracking while you are giving compressions, make sure your hands are in the correct position and continue compressing.

14). What if I don’t have a first aid kit at the scene of an accident?

Not having a first aid kit handy in an emergency is very common. There are plenty of things you can use to improvise, depending on the emergency – check out our First Aid with no first aid kit? - No Problem! page to learn more!

15). What is the success rate of CPR?

CPR, especially if administered immediately after cardiac arrest, can double - triple a person’s chance of survival. About 90% of people who experience a cardiac arrest out of hospital die.

16). What can we do to increase the rate of survival?

If the first-aider is able to respond immediately, call 911, and apply an AED (Automated External Defibrillator) within one minute of the cardiac arrest, the chance of survival can be up to 90% This chance goes down about 10% every minute that goes by without an AED.

This is why having an AED accessible in busy public locations (like airports, malls and government buildings) is so important.

17). Why is my first aid certificate valid for 2 years?

Although there is no science to indicate how long a person can remember their first aid skills for, it is the agreed upon length of certification for PADI EFR.

Frequent first aid training and CPR training can improve performance of first-aiders as well as outcomes for injured people. Certain occupations (like nurses and lifeguards) often require recertifications to be completed every year.

18). If I’m alone at the scene of an accident, what is more important – calling 911 or helping the person?

If you are alone with an adult and they are not breathing it is best to call 911 first. If you are alone with a child or an infant and they are not breathing give them one minute of CPR then go call 911

19). What should I have in my first aid kit?

The following items are very important to have in your first aid kit:

  • CPR Pocket Mask to protect yourself.
  • Vinyl or Nitrile Gloves – at least two pairs. Do not use latex as it can cause an allergic reaction.
  • Sterile gauze of various sizes (2″x2″, 3″x3″, 4″x4″) for cleaning and treating small wounds.
  • Large pressure dressing or abdominal pads for treating major bleeding.
  • Bandages of various sizes, if possible it is best to use a cloth bandage as they tend to breathe better.
  • Sensi Wrap, this is an amazing no-stick product that can allow the first-aider to quickly bandage a small or larger wound without the use of scissors or tape.
  • Bandage scissors – preferably stainless steel. They will cost a bit more but last for a long time and can be cleaned.
  • Instant cold packs for treatment of anything that causes swelling. 
  • Space blankets for treatment of shock or hypothermia. They can retain up to 80% of a person’s body heat, waterproof, and visible from a distance.


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